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African dwarf frog

African dwarf frogs of genus Hymenochirus, also known as dwarf aquatic frogs (ADF or DAF for short), are frogs native to Sub Saharan Africa. They are members of Family Pipidae. It is unknown if a wild population still exists.
Aquatic Dwarf Frogs live most of their adult lives underwater.[
citation needed] They have hard time seeing close range but have good sight 7 cm or further.[citation needed] They rely on a sharp sense of smell and touch to find food such as tiny insects, some small fish meat,[citation needed] mosquito larvae and worms (which, in capitivity, should be fed every two days at full maturity, but every day while they are growing; a day skipped every week helps with digestion[citation needed]). They are often sold in pet shops and can live in captivity for a maximum of 10-20 years,[citation needed] most lasting an average of 7.[citation needed]
When very young, African dwarf frogs can be confused with
African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, but may be distinguished by examining their forelimbs. The African dwarf frog has webbed forelimbs and hindlimbs, while X. laevis has webbing on the hind limbs only. African dwarf frogs are usually only an inch and a half in body length when fully grown; females are generally larger than the males. The African clawed frog, on the other hand, can reach a body length of greater than three inches.
In Captivity
The general rule for housing ADF's is that there is to be at least 1 gallon per frog. Therefore, 2 can be housed in a 2.5 or with a small peaceful fish, such as a tetras. They prefer neutral to slightly alkaline water.
The substrate shouldn't be small enough for the frog to accidentally eat, but not large enough that when foraging they are crushed, pinned, or drowned. Sand to medium sized gravel is appropriate, sand being more preferrable. The frogs aren't big enough to stirr up the sand, but not too small to root about to find lost food. You may want to invest in a small scavenger, such as a corydoras or otocinclus, so anaerobic conditions do not develop under the sand or gravel because of decomposing food items. To prevent the sand from clouding the water, wash in a bucket with a screen stretched atop 3 to 4 times with the coldest water possible, thereby, removing any pathogens or parasites from the substrate.
Temperature and Lighting:
These frogs are found naturally in sub-tropical conditions, so a temperature of at least 70ºF - 75ºF, with a slight drop at night to simulate nocturnal conditions. Lighting isn't a requirement but can be provided by incandescent or fluorescent lighting tubes. Again, you must simulate nocturnal conditions, so switching off the light after 8 to 12 hours is essential. If these conditions are not simulated on a regular basis, life will become stressful and unnatural for the frogs, and they will become susceptible to diseases such as red leg or dropsy.
The African Dwarf Frog is suited to peaceful communities, and semi-peaceful communities. This basically means no frog nippers or predators. They can be successfully housed with Betta splendens, but males may become aggressive at any moment, so a female tankmate is a bit safer. They can be housed with small catfish, environmental conditions and habitat size permitting, such as corydoras or otocinclus. Peaceful, community tetras like the neon, cardinal, or glowlight tetras are fine, again circumstances permitting. Guppies, platies, or swordtails are good tankmates as well. These frogs are docile enough to be housed with some small crustaceans, like cherry shrimp, and, circumstances permitting, Singapore Flower Shrimp or Amano Shrimp are possible. Avoid ghost shrimp as they can cause bodily harm to the frogs. Small apple snails, such as P. brigesii, also known as Mystery Snails, are ok. They are detritivores and will not kill, nor try to eat a sleeping frog. African dwarf frogs also enjoy their own kind, of some cases the african dwarf frog has been kept with tiger barbs. althougt tiger barbs are known fin nippers and will likely try to eat your frog you still can raise each other to gether as long as you have at least 6-8 tiger barbs. at the beginnig the barbs will try to eat your frog but after a while the barbs will forget and leave him alone.
These frogs,being air breathing animals, filtration or aeration isn't required. However, if fish are introduced, this changes and filtration is required. Excepting B. splendens, of course, whos specially adapted labyrinth organ allows the fish to take oxygen directly from the atmosphere and pass it through his or her gills. But in case it is required, power filters must not have intake big enough for the frogs' delicate legs to become trapped, therefore, drowning them. Sponge filtration is ok, but not efficient. Air stones are BAD as they can attribute to gas bubble disease, which is deadly. Undergravel filters can only be used with just that, gravel. The preferred substrate of sand prevents them from working properly, therefore, breaking your possibly expensive filter.
These frogs hunt by smell and will consume frozen, freeze dried, sun dried, pellet, and live foods. They're not as picky as a betta. Just make sure that the food is eaten, and not left to decompose under the sand. Also, drop an algae wafer to distract the scavengers. The scavengers, if any, will immediately go after the wafer and continue to consume it instead of the frog's food. However, if housed with ghost shrimp, this strategy is not needed, because the shrimp will drop food and flee instead of risking life or limb, then come back later for the leftovers. If an excessive amount of sand is consumed during the feeding process, put a small dish with no sharp edges into the bottom of the tank, and your frog will soon learn to come to the dish for food. (NOTE: Frozen bloodworms tend to work great.) Also, these frogs do not need to be constantly fed: feeding can be skipped every few days.
Dwarf frogs are usually killed if exposed to very large sounds, especially when they are in small tanks because the vibrations will shake the tank, like if someone was shaking a fish in a bag.

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